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Unknowns

Displaying 1 - 10 of 14
Purpose: To provide an understanding of confirmation bias and ways to avoid it, in order to support good decision making on complex problems. Description: Confirmation bias manifests as follows: (1) We accept a story uncritically if it confirms what we would like to be true and reject it if it contradicts what we would like to be true. (2) We accept a fact as data, even if it is an outlier which is not backed up by large-scale data. (3) We accept data as evidence, even if it is consistent with rival theories, without looking for evidence that supports one theory and rules out all rival theories...
Purpose: To provide an understanding of the dilution effect and its impact on decision making. Description: The dilution effect is a cognitive bias that occurs when we weigh up several pieces of information, some of which are relevant to a decision that we have to make and some of which are irrelevant. It turns out […]
These six videos provide perspectives from, respectively, the disciplines of clinical psychology, history, law, philosophy, physics and statistics on how each discipline deals with the unknown. Understanding and responding to unknowns does not fall neatly within a single discipline. Instead, different disciplines have different ways of thinking about and dealing with unknowns and there is […]
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Metaphors help people “understand the unfamiliar” and “make someone realise they’ve only been looking at one side of a thing.” Metaphors assist in closing “the gap in people’s ability to grasp something, or speed up what they’re already on track to see.” Designing metaphors involves generating multiple possible comparisons to find those that work well. […]
Demonstrates an effective method for quantifying consequences and likelihoods of risks, as well as for combining these assessments. Different kinds of risks are examined: death, injury and illness; economic; social; environmental; symbolic; external; and reputational. The authors show how these can be rated and combined, allowing for a rich appraisal of a wide range of […]
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Purpose: To define who stakeholders are and what engagement with them is likely to contribute to a particular research project. Description: Discusses who stakeholders in research are, as well as reasons for engaging stakeholders. The benefits of stakeholder engagement are then further examined according to the type of engagement.  Defining ‘stakeholders’ The handbook (Durham et […]
Purpose: To provide a range of methods useful for stakeholder engagement. Description: Lists are provided, sometimes with brief descriptions, of various methods for stakeholder engagement, grouped into methods for opening out, exploring and deciding, as well as techniques that promote direct or pro-active interactions, involve stakeholders in the research process, increase awareness of the project […]
Purpose: To provide insights into the kinds of conflicts that can occur in stakeholder engagement and their causes, as well as how to analyse and manage conflicts. Description: Conflict is common in stakeholder engagement and can occur among individuals, groups or organisations. Managing conflict requires particular skills. A well-managed conflict can be functional, leading to […]
Purpose: To provide guidance on the contributions that stakeholders can make before, during and after the research. Description: Stakeholders have different contributions to make before, during and after the research. Most stakeholders will be involved at particular times for particular tasks, rather than throughout the whole research process. It can be helpful to specifically consider […]
Purpose: To demonstrate how a qualitative system dynamics map is constructed, along with its value in identifying leverage points, as well as to develop principles for qualitative mapping. Description: This 28 minute video by George Richardson describes his perspective on how a systems thinker and modeler approaches the problem of extensive evil. He builds a […]

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