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Knowledge Synthesis

Displaying 1 - 10 of 38
Purpose: To provide a process for describing and further assessing propositions, which are “proposals on best practice that have a solid evidence base but remain contested.” Description: The development of propositions has two phases: an initial phase, where “a small group of researchers and practitioners define a set of evidence-based insights and counterview for a […]
Purpose: To describe common problems that can occur with grading systems which may negate their usefulness in justifying evidence-based changes in policy and practice. Description: In order to summarise the state of research on particular topics, the quality and robustness of scientific results is often assessed using one of a number of so-called grading instruments […]
Purpose: To provide an understanding of confirmation bias and ways to avoid it, in order to support good decision making on complex problems. Description: Confirmation bias manifests as follows: (1) We accept a story uncritically if it confirms what we would like to be true and reject it if it contradicts what we would like to be true. (2) We accept a fact as data, even if it is an outlier which is not backed up by large-scale data. (3) We accept data as evidence, even if it is consistent with rival theories, without looking for evidence that supports one theory and rules out all rival theories...
Purpose: To provide an understanding of the dilution effect and its impact on decision making. Description: The dilution effect is a cognitive bias that occurs when we weigh up several pieces of information, some of which are relevant to a decision that we have to make and some of which are irrelevant. It turns out […]
Purpose: To lay the groundwork for effective team functioning by assessing a range of factors that influence the likelihood and degree of collaborative success. Description: Ten key influences on the likelihood and degree of collaborative success have been identified by reviewing the literature. Team members are encouraged to develop a collaboration plan that addresses these […]
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Purpose: To help a research or policy-making group come to terms with the feedback dynamics of the system which characterises the problem they are interested in. The intent is to learn just enough about the way that feedback operates in the system-of-interest, that they can identify and explain its main effects. The aim is to […]
Purpose: To demonstrate how games based on models can assist decision making and change on complex problems. Description: This video demonstrates how well-designed games, with skilled facilitation, empower players to make better decisions. When those with power to make change are the players, games can assist in finding innovative ways to make progress on difficult […]
Purpose: To systematically solicit and collate expert judgments on a particular topic, which also provides a structured way for the experts to build on each other’s ideas. Description: Each expert is asked for their judgment on a topic using a questionnaire or interview; this does not require the experts to meet. The responses are collated and summarised and returned to the experts before proceeding with a second round of questions about the topic, often leading to voting on a particular question...
Purpose: Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a method, a theory of action, a dialogue process, and a whole of system concept that brings together members of an organisation to clarify, develop and integrate their visions about their joint endeavours. The aim is to build on something in the organisation that works well and that can move the organisation to a higher level of goal attainment to strengthen the future of the organisation.
Purpose: To create the right conditions for dialogue Description: Nine key dynamics in a dialogue are 1) building a safe space, 2) openness, 3) respect, 4) storytelling, 5) listening, 6) suspending automatic response, judgment, and certainty, 7) collaborative inquiry, 8) finding common ground and exploring differences and 9) balancing advocacy and inquiry.  Building a safe space: […]
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