Stakeholder participation: IAP2 public participation spectrum


  • To describe different ways community engagement can occur
  • To assist in the selection of the appropriate level of public participation for projects involving community engagement

Description: The International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) has assessed different ways the community can be involved in any program of community engagement. The spectrum, illustrated in the figure below, shows that “differing levels of participation are legitimate and depend on the goals, time frames, resources, and levels of concern in the decision to be made.” In addition, the Spectrum sets out the “promise to the public” for each type of participation.

IAP2 Public Participation Spectrum

(Copyright: IAP2 International Federation, 2014 – written permission obtained from IAP2)


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Posted: October 2017
Last modified: June 2018