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Book Chapter

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Purpose: To highlight the difference between adoption and use in how research findings contribute to change Description: To understand how research findings lead to change, it is useful to look separately at two steps: Adoption, which is “the willingness and ability to take research results and convert them into something that’s usable more broadly.” This […]
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Purpose: To lay the groundwork for effective team functioning by assessing a range of factors that influence the likelihood and degree of collaborative success. Description: Ten key influences on the likelihood and degree of collaborative success have been identified by reviewing the literature. Team members are encouraged to develop a collaboration plan that addresses these […]
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The ethical matrix provides a structured process for identifying, weighing and integrating different, and potentially conflicting, values among the various stakeholders concerned with an issue or problem. The matrix has three principles – well-being, autonomy and justice – on the horizontal axis, with the various stakeholders affected by the problem and decision-making listed on the […]
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Demonstrates an effective method for quantifying consequences and likelihoods of risks, as well as for combining these assessments. Different kinds of risks are examined: death, injury and illness; economic; social; environmental; symbolic; external; and reputational. The authors show how these can be rated and combined, allowing for a rich appraisal of a wide range of […]
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This framework presents a structured way to review all the possibilities for understanding and acting on a complex problem. The questions are: “What do we know about the problem? What can different interest groups and academic disciplines contribute to addressing this problem? What areas are contentious? What are the big-picture issues? In other words, what […]
Purpose: To distinguish different kinds of unknowns. Description: It is useful to characterise different kinds of unknowns and to show their relationships in a taxonomy. A taxonomy of unknowns is shown in the figure below. The catch-all term used in this taxonomy to encompass all kinds of unknowns is “ignorance” and the first distinction is […]
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Purpose: To distinguish among three primary categories of unknowns. Description: One useful way of thinking about different kinds of unknowns is illustrated in the matrix below, which highlights three kinds of unknowns: known unknowns, unknown knowns and unknown unknowns. The most familiar is what we know we do not know ie ‘known unknowns’ or conscious […]
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