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Systems archetypes are recurring generic systems structures found in many kinds of organisations, under many circumstances, and at many levels and scales. They are distinctive combinations of reinforcing and balancing processes. These system archetypes teach how to diagnose recurring problems and to design effective interventions. Eight common archetypes are: fixes that fail shifting the burden […]
Purpose: To provide an understanding of key systems principles. Description: This five-minute video uses ‘love’ as a universal example to illustrate what it means to think in systems (rather than parts) to better understand complexity. An example is provided of each of the following: Stocks Inflows Outflows Reinforcing feedback loops Balancing feedback loops Nonlinearity Delays […]
Purpose: To describe some basic elements of systems thinking and how they affect approaches to complex societal and environmental problems. Description: The report and accompanying video each provide a useful description of systems and show what is required to move to a more systemic approach to a problem when technical solutions focusing on individual parts […]
The Team Science website provides four education modules. The module on team science covers: 1) team conflicts and resolutions, 2) incentives and disincentives to collaborative research, 3) communication techniques and 4) evaluation methods. Three other modules examine team science research in Behavioural Science, Basic Medical Science and Clinical Medical Science, respectively. Website: https://www.teamscience.net/ Posted: December 2011Last modified: […]
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Purpose: To consolidate and provide access to knowledge, practical tools and strategies for collaborative efforts to address scientific challenges by leveraging “the strengths and expertise of professionals trained in different fields.” Description: This user-generated collection provides “resources to help manage, support, conduct, or study team-based research,” in particular: Tools, includes proven approaches, training materials and […]
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Transdisciplinary research is based on the objects of integration and implementation. The research process aims to create space for common thinking, mutual learning and joint action between partners from diverse disciplines and societal fields in order to create knowledge, understanding and induce transformation. Therefore, an integrative methodology has to be set up consisting of a […]
The problem of dealing with unknowns does not reside in any one discipline. Instead, it inhabits many disciplines. Nearly all disciplines and practice domains have perspectives on the unknown, and their perspectives employ methods ranging from mathematics to discourse analysis. These perspectives are, however, fragmented and specific to their discipline’s linguistic-conceptual frameworks. Thus, researchers and […]
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Purpose: To distinguish different kinds of unknowns. Description: It is useful to characterise different kinds of unknowns and to show their relationships in a taxonomy. A taxonomy of unknowns is shown in the figure below. The catch-all term used in this taxonomy to encompass all kinds of unknowns is “ignorance” and the first distinction is […]
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Purpose: To distinguish among three primary categories of unknowns. Description: One useful way of thinking about different kinds of unknowns is illustrated in the matrix below, which highlights three kinds of unknowns: known unknowns, unknown knowns and unknown unknowns. The most familiar is what we know we do not know ie ‘known unknowns’ or conscious […]
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Purpose: To identify personal values that are robust across cultures and that can help explain diversity and conflict in values. Description: Six main features, relevant to all values, are described first. This is followed by an outline of ten basic personal values, with a guide to which are congruent and which conflict. Six main features […]

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