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Scoping of complex social and environmental problems can be undertaken using the following seven phase framework. Phase 1: Analyse the Context When did the problem attract attention? Who raised the problem? How was the decision to do something about the problem arrived at? What do those who raised the problem expect? What is their general […]
Purpose: To describe a way of identifying relevant stakeholders, to provide a way of prioritising which stakeholders to engage with and to specifically examine this stakeholder analysis method in a research context.
Purpose: To identify the key actors (stakeholders) who may be able to affect a policy outcome, especially whether or not they agree with the change proposed (alignment) and whether or not they are likely to take action (interest). To determine how a coalition seeking to achieve change might best interact with each of the identified […]
Purpose: To define who stakeholders are and what engagement with them is likely to contribute to a particular research project. Description: Discusses who stakeholders in research are, as well as reasons for engaging stakeholders. The benefits of stakeholder engagement are then further examined according to the type of engagement.  Defining ‘stakeholders’ The handbook (Durham et […]
Purpose: To decide on the extent of the stakeholder engagement to be undertaken, taking into account relevant contextual factors. Description: What is meant by the extent of the engagement is outlined first, followed by issues to consider in deciding the extent. Context is one of these issues and is described in a separate section. Extent […]
Purpose: To ascertain everyone who has a perspective or knowledge that may be useful to the research. Description: Four different approaches to identifying stakeholders are extracted from Durham and colleagues (2014). It can be helpful to use one or more of them in any project. In identifying stakeholders, it is important to be inclusive, at […]
Purpose: To identify key processes for successfully involving stakeholders in research. Description: Effective engagement with stakeholders involves: a) understanding their motivations, expertise and ability to engage, b) making engagement credible, relevant and legitimate, c) understanding what makes engagement successful and d) avoiding or managing challenges to engagement. Understanding your stakeholders It is helpful to understand […]
Purpose: To provide a range of methods useful for stakeholder engagement. Description: Lists are provided, sometimes with brief descriptions, of various methods for stakeholder engagement, grouped into methods for opening out, exploring and deciding, as well as techniques that promote direct or pro-active interactions, involve stakeholders in the research process, increase awareness of the project […]
Purpose: To assess one or more of the process, the outcomes and the impact of the stakeholder engagement. Description: How stakeholder engagement is assessed depends on the purposes of the evaluation. Discussed here are major types of evaluation, benefits of evaluation, common questions for different aspects of monitoring and evaluation and considering evaluation during three […]
Purpose: To provide insights into the kinds of conflicts that can occur in stakeholder engagement and their causes, as well as how to analyse and manage conflicts. Description: Conflict is common in stakeholder engagement and can occur among individuals, groups or organisations. Managing conflict requires particular skills. A well-managed conflict can be functional, leading to […]

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