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ICTAM is a step-wise method for bringing qualitative mental models into formal quantitative simulation models. The ICTAM acronym stands for the key methods used throughout the process: Interviews, Cognitive mapping, Time-sequence Unified Modelling Language (UML), All-encompassing framework, and numerical agent-based Models. The process starts by conducting semi-structured interviews with stakeholders. The purpose is to collect data […]
Purpose: To systematically solicit and collate expert judgments on a particular topic, which also provides a structured way for the experts to build on each other’s ideas. Description: Each expert is asked for their judgment on a topic using a questionnaire or interview; this does not require the experts to meet. The responses are collated and summarised and returned to the experts before proceeding with a second round of questions about the topic, often leading to voting on a particular question...
Purpose: theDesignExchange website is an open-source archive which provides information about design methods, along with how to use them, as well as case studies illustrating their use. Description: 99 methods are described on the website in the following categories: Research, including focus group, card sorting, POSTA (Person, Objects, Situations, Time and Activity framework) and participant […]
Purpose: This curated online directory, called Public Design Vault, aims to provide an "all-in-one, a full-stop one-stop, a mother list of lists, a singularity for the plethora of toolkits and resources that are available on the vast internet." It aims to include "all the well-known usual suspects" as well as "a few diamonds in the rough."
Fourteen dialogue methods are described to facilitate interactions between, and synthesise knowledge from, experts from a range of disciplines, as well as stakeholders affected by the problem and those in a position to do something about it. Dialogue can be key to research on real-world problems—like restoration of wetlands, the needs of the elderly, effective […]
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Purpose: Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a method, a theory of action, a dialogue process, and a whole of system concept that brings together members of an organisation to clarify, develop and integrate their visions about their joint endeavours. The aim is to build on something in the organisation that works well and that can move the organisation to a higher level of goal attainment to strengthen the future of the organisation.
Purpose: To help those involved in research – including researchers from various disciplines as well as decision makers and other stakeholders – understand different ways in which research is conceived and undertaken. Description:  An important source of differences among those involved in research is in how research is conceived and undertaken. Disciplinary training is key […]
Purpose: To create the right conditions for dialogue Description: Nine key dynamics in a dialogue are 1) building a safe space, 2) openness, 3) respect, 4) storytelling, 5) listening, 6) suspending automatic response, judgment, and certainty, 7) collaborative inquiry, 8) finding common ground and exploring differences and 9) balancing advocacy and inquiry.  Building a safe space: […]
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Purpose: Nominal group technique is a special-purpose method for problem solving or idea generation. It taps and combines individual judgments to arrive at decisions that could not be determined by one person. It is not a tool for routine meetings or for negotiating or bargaining. It is not a tool for routine meetings or for negotiating or bargaining. Instead it is a technique for judgmental or creative decision making where there is lack of agreement or an incomplete state of knowledge about either the nature of the problem or about what is required to reach a successful solution.
Purpose: To provide a way of effectively integrating different interests by finding a mutually agreeable fair solution through a problem solving approach. Description: Principled negotiation has four steps: (1) separate the people from the problem; (2) focus on interests, not positions; (3) generate a variety of possibilities before deciding what to do; (4) look for a fair solution, based on the merits.

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