The Team Science website provides four education modules. The module on team science covers: 1) team conflicts and resolutions, 2) incentives and disincentives to collaborative research, 3) communication techniques and 4) evaluation methods.
The Team Science Toolkit is a “user-generated collection of information and resources that support the practice and study of team science.” It is hosted by the National Cancer Institute at the US National Institutes of Health. The toolkit has resources relevant for many kinds of team work. The toolkit features:
The concepts of trading zones and interactional expertise provide useful ways of thinking about and improving collaborations across very different disciplinary communities, such as materials science, social psychology and ethics.
Transboundary competence involves the ability to deal with diversity and to cross the boundaries that divide perspectives. Seven key boundaries and useful approaches to cross them are shown in the following table:
Transdisciplinary research is based on the objects of integration and implementation. The research process aims to create space for common thinking, mutual learning and joint action between partners from diverse disciplines and societal fields in order to create knowledge, understanding and induce transformation.
The problem of dealing with unknowns does not reside in any one discipline. Instead, it inhabits many disciplines. Nearly all disciplines and practice domains have perspectives on the unknown, and their perspectives employ methods ranging from mathematics to discourse analysis.
This taxonomy distinguishes between passive and active ignorance. Passive ignorance involves areas that we are ignorant of, whereas active ignorance refers to areas we ignore. The term ‘error’ is used for the unknowns encompassed by passive ignorance and ‘irrelevance’ for active ignorance.
This overview of unknowns provides a portal to many topics, including how different disciplines and domains perceive unknowns, the socially constructed nature of unknowns, the diversity of unknowns, distinguishing between unknowns, metaphors and unknowns, morals and unknowns, and managing unknowns.
The matrix below provides a useful way of distinguishing between three primary categories of unknowns. The most familiar is ignorance that we are aware of, the ‘known unknowns’. Most research addresses this kind of ignorance, seeking to fill known knowledge gaps.