Knowledge Synthesis

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The following three YouTube videos (each less than 5 minutes long) provide an introduction to systems thinking.


The Team Science website provides four education modules. The module on team science covers: 1) team conflicts and resolutions, 2) incentives and disincentives to collaborative research, 3) communication techniques and 4) evaluation methods.

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The Team Science Toolkit is a “user-generated collection of information and resources that support the practice and study of team science.” It is hosted by the National Cancer Institute at the US National Institutes of Health. The toolkit has resources relevant for many kinds of team work. The toolkit features:

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The concepts of trading zones and interactional expertise provide useful ways of thinking about and improving collaborations across very different disciplinary communities, such as materials science, social psychology and ethics.

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Transboundary competence involves the ability to deal with diversity and to cross the boundaries that divide perspectives. Seven key boundaries and useful approaches to cross them are shown in the following table:


This video describes how transdisciplinary research contributes to sustainability through a case study of five projects in Gothenburg, Sweden. It assesses a common assumption that transdisciplinary research is more able to contribute to societal problem solving than traditional forms of research.

Transdisciplinary research (of the European sustainability style) is described in this video as research that combines knowledge from different disciplines and engages with societal actors:

"Health social science synthesizes a wide range of knowledge in order to understand and solve complex health problems. This volume presents ten case studies that illustrate some of the best practice in health social science in developing countries.

This review of core competencies that need to be taught to develop transdisciplinary research includes:

This handbook describes 21 cases organised using the three phases of a transdisciplinary research project: 1) problem structuring, 2) problem investigation and 3) bringing results to fruition.


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